The Chicago Manual of Style Author-Date system is used by scholars in the social sciences and sciences. For arts, history, and humanities, see the Notes/Bibliography system.
Citing sources in this style consists of two parts:
The in-text citation points the reader to the full information about the source found in the reference list.
An in-text citation provides your reader with two pieces of information:
The reference list provides the full details of the items you have cited in your paper. Here are some general features of the reference list:
Du Bois, W. E. B. 1898. "The Study of the Negro Problems." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 11 (January): 1-23. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1009474.
———. 1903. The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches. Chicago: A. C. McClurg.
———. 1947. The World and Africa: An Inquiry into the Part Which Africa Has Played in World History. New York: Viking.
Olney, William W. 2015a. "Impact of Corruption on Firm-Level Export Decisions." Economic Inquiry 54 (2): 1105–27.
Olney, William W. 2015b. "Remittances and the Wage Impact of Immigration." Journal of Human Resources 50 (3): 694-727.
(World Bank 2011)
(New York Times 1912)
(Human Rights Campaign, n.d.)
(Library of Congress, n.d., under "Slave Narratives and the New Debate about Slavery")
(Geis and Bunn 1997, 17)
(Chih-Hung Ko et al. 2009, 600)
Geis, Gilbert, and Ivan Bunn. 1997. A Trial of Witches: a Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution. London: Routledge.
Ko, Chih-Hung, Ju-Yu Yen, Shu-Chun Liu, Chi-Fen Huang, and Cheng-Fang Yen. 2009. "The Associations between Aggressive Behaviors and Internet Addiction and Online Activities in Adolescents." Journal of Adolescent Health 44 (6): 598-605.
It is always better to consult the original source, but if it cannot be obtained, give information about the original source in the running text and include "quoted in" in your in-text citation for the secondary source. Include only the secondary source in your reference list. (CMOS, 15.56)
In his 1844 book Thoughts on the Proposed Annexation of Texas to the United States, Theodore Sedgwick opines "The annexation of Texas instead of strengthening the Union, weakens it" (quoted in Rathbun 2001, 479).
Rathbun, Lyon. 2001. "The Debate over Annexing Texas and the Emergence of Manifest Destiny." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 4 (3): 459-493.