Arts & Humanities
APA citation style is used by many Physical and Social Science disciplines.
At the library: Publication manual of the American Psychological Association
Visit Purdue OWL to learn more.
APA format for citing an article in journal:
APA format for citing a book:
Want to see more?
The MLA citation style is used by most Humanities disciplines.
In the library: MLA Handbook *NEW* 2016 edition!
1. A single standardized citation format
Previous MLA citation guides required researchers to select the most appropriate format depending on the type of source.
In MLA 8, all citations are composed of core elements common to most works, which are always arranged in the same order, with the same punctuation.
To make a single standardized citation format work for the enormous variety of possible sources, MLA 8 uses the concept of containers. When the source being documented forms part of a larger whole, the larger whole can be thought of as a "container" that holds the source.
For example, a journal article is "contained" within a journal, which could then be "contained" within a database. (For a more visual representation of how containers work, try MLA Style Center's Works Cited: A Quick Guide.)
3. Including URLs or DOIs
It is now highly recommended to include the URL or DOI (Digital Object Identifier) of a cited resource. DOIs are preferred if available since once assigned, they never change; however, even an outdated URL can provide useful information to a reader attempting to follow a citation.
4. Adding abbreviations to indicate the meaning of numbers
When listing page numbers, use p. for a single page or pp. for multiple pages. For citations of journal articles or magazines, you now should include the abbreviations vol. (for volume) or no. (for issue number).
Can't get your hands on the original source that's cited in the article you're reading? Never fear!
Easing the frustration of citing secondary sources outlines in plain English how to cite the source correctly in MLA, APA, or Chicago styles.